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If you want to know your level in English, or what is needed to reach a certain level, this page provides the answer in detail: A precise checklist for each skill (Speaking, Listening, Reading and Writing) or each level (Absolute beginner – Proficiency). This has a number of uses:
For example, if you are to write ‘Intermediate Level’ on your CV, it will say very little to your prospective employers. If you write ‘Upper-Intermediate / level B2 (CEFR) 60-66 (GSE)’ you will be sending a clear message.
Also, if you are thinking of taking an exam (Cambridge Advanced or PET, for example), you will need to know what is expected of you. Read the list carefully to see what aspects you will have to improve.
There are two scales which are most often used when talking about a person’s level in English, and on which exam qualifications are based. These are the Common European Framework Reference (CEFR, or MCER in Spanish) and the Global Scale of English (GSE).
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This diagram shows the GSE compared to the CEFR:
Below is a checklist of what you are expected to be able to do at each level, and for each skill (Reading, Listening, Speaking and Writing). Although an exam may give you a level of (for example) B2, it is very likely that in some skills you may have a high B1 level and in others you could have a low C1 level.
The GSE system is graded by points, which show different levels within a CEFR standard.
If you look at the checklist below, you will have a better idea of what your real level is in each skill. THE UNDERLINED SECTIONS will take you to a page to help you with that skill.
Which of the following can you do comfortably?
GSE 10–21/Below A1:
Can recognise cardinal numbers 1 – 10.
Can recognise the letters of the alphabet.
Can read and understand simple prices.
Can identify very common food and drink on a menu.
Can recognise basic plural forms of nouns (e.g. cars, books).
Can recognise familiar names, words and very basic phrases on simple notices.
Can follow short, simple written directions (e.g. to go from X to Y).
Can understand short written notices, signs and instructions with visual support.
Can understand simple questions in questionnaires on familiar topics.
Can find specific, predictable information in everyday materials (e.g. menus, timetables).
Can understand short, simple messages on postcards, emails and social networks.
Can understand the general meaning of short, simple informational material and descriptions if there is visual support.
Can understand simple instructions on everyday equipment (e.g. cash machines).
Can understand rules and regulations (e.g. safety) if expressed in simple language.
Can identify specific information in simple letters, brochures and short articles.
Can understand short, simple personal emails and letters.
Can understand reports of travel delays and cancellations.
Can make basic inferences from simple information in a short text.
Can understand simple factual titles and headlines relating to common events.
Can identify specific information in a simple factual text.
Can understand the instructions to buy tickets online.
Can understand simple technical information (e.g. instructions for everyday equipment).
Can make basic inferences or predictions about text content from headings, titles or headlines.
Can understand information in advertisements for jobs and services.
Can skim a simple text to identify key concepts.
Can derive the probable meaning of simple unknown words from short, familiar contexts.
Can understand clearly written, straightforward instructions on how to use a piece of equipment, written instructions for taking medication.
Can understand basic types of standard letters and emails on familiar topics (e.g. enquiries, complaints).
Can generally understand straightforward factual texts on familiar topics.
Can identify the topic sentence of a paragraph.
Can extract relevant details in everyday letters, brochures and short official documents.
Can recognise the writer’s point of view in a simple academic text, if guided by questions.
Can identify key information in a simple academic text, if guided by questions.
Can scan a simple academic text to find specific information.
Can understand the main idea of a passage using textual clues.
Can distinguish between fact and opinion in relation to common topics.
Can make simple inferences based on information given in a short article.
Can generally understand details of events, feelings and wishes in letters, emails and online postings.
Can follow chronological sequence in a formal structured text.
Can identify whether an author is quoting or paraphrasing another person.
Can identify the sources of information in a simple academic text.
Can understand the writer’s purpose in a simple academic text, if guided by questions.
Can recognise examples and their relation to the idea they support.
Can distinguish between fact and opinion in a simple academic text.
Can distinguish between the main idea and related ideas in a simple academic text in order to answer specific questions.
Can identify the key points presented in graphs and charts in a simple academic text, if guided by questions.
Can understand written advice and instructions for resolving a problem with a product or piece of equipment.
Can guess the meaning of an unfamiliar word from context.
Can distinguish between different viewpoints in a simple academic text.
Can recognise significant points and arguments in straightforward newspaper articles on familiar topics.
Can scan an interview transcript for key information.
Can understand cause and effect relationships in a structured text.
Can recognise the general line of a written argument though not necessarily all the details.
Can identify different types of supporting details in a simple academic text, in order to answer specific questions.
Can distinguish between active and passive voice in an academic text.
Can understand most correspondence relating to their field of interest.
Can understand problem and solution relationships in a structured text.
Can use a monolingual dictionary to check the meaning of words without needing to refer to a bilingual dictionary.
Can understand instructions for making financial transactions online.
Can identify the main conclusions in a text that presents and contrasts arguments in a clearly signalled way.
Can make inferences or predictions about the content of newspaper and magazine articles from headings, titles or headlines.
Can identify the use of paraphrasing in a simple academic text.
Can understand simple metaphors in an academic text.
Can follow the exchanges on the discussion board of a website.
Can critically evaluate the quality of sources used in a simple text.
Can critically evaluate the effectiveness of a simple descriptive, argumentative or discursive essay.
Can critically evaluate the effectiveness of a simple problem-solution essay.
Can recognise the author’s use of irony in a simple text, if guided by questions.
an understand the author’s purpose and intended audience.
Can use reference materials to check factual information, when guidance on finding relevant sources of information is provided.
Can scan a long text or a set of related texts in order to find specific information.
Can understand the use of quotes in an academic text.
Can identify the main line of argument in an academic text.
Can identify examples in an academic text to support an argument.
Can summarise, comment on and discuss a wide range of factual and imaginative texts.
Can understand complex technical information such as operating instructions, specifications for familiar products and services.
Can infer what will come next in an unstructured text by using contextual, grammatical and lexical cues.
Can understand the details of long complex instructions in their field, rereading as necessary.
Can identify different types of supporting details in an academic text.
Can recognise common discourse markers that convey emphasis in a linguistically complex text.
Can distinguish between active and passive voice in a linguistically complex academic text.
Can synthesise information from different sources in order to give a written or oral summary.
Can quickly scan long, complex texts for key information.
Can understand inferred meaning in formal structured text.
Can understand complex, detailed correspondence, with occasional support from a dictionary.
Can distinguish between fact and opinion in complex formal contexts.
Can understand complex questions in questionnaires designed to elicit opinions.
Can predict the content of a linguistically complex academic text by reading introductory and summary statements.
Can recognise poetic devices such as rhythm, alliteration or repetition.
Can understand the intended double meaning of a word in a written text.
Can take effective notes on a complex and unfamiliar text.
Can recognise the writer’s point of view, main line of argument and purpose in a linguistically complex academic text.
Can understand correspondence containing idiomatic or non-standard language.
Can infer the author’s attitude in a linguistically complex academic text.
Can identify logical flaws in an argument in an academic paper.
Can distinguish between literal and allegorical meaning in a literary text.
Can follow abstract argumentation, for example the balancing of alternatives and the drawing of a conclusion.
Can extract information, ideas and opinions from highly specialised sources within their field.
Can understand complex arguments in newspaper articles.
Can research a topic by reading linguistically complex academic texts.
Can compare the presentation of a key concept in different texts by different authors using different styles of writing.
Can recognise multiple purposes in a linguistically complex academic text.
Can understand a linguistically complex poem.
Can understand complex or extended metaphors in an academic text.
Can understand linguistically complex academic texts in specialised fields, or complex arguments in technical or academic journals.
Can understand highly colloquial language in unstructured texts that use complex structures.
Can recognise subtle distinctions of style in linguistically complex academic texts.
GSE 10–21/Below A1:
Can recognise simple informal greetings.
Can understand the letters of the alphabet.
Can understand cardinal and ordinal numbers from 1 to 100.
Can recognise simple formal greetings.
Can understand very basic common classroom instructions.
Can understand the time of day when expressed in full hours.
Can understand simple language related to prices and quantities.
Can understand basic personal details, and questions, if given carefully and slowly.
Can understand questions addressed carefully and slowly.
Can understand short, simple instructions addressed carefully and slowly.
Can understand the time of day.
Can distinguish between can and can’t.
Can understand basic questions and information about people’s likes and dislikes.
Can follow speech which is very slow and carefully articulated, with long pauses.
Can understand cardinal numbers from 101 to 1000.
Can understand a phone number from a recorded message.
Can understand basic questions and information about free time activities.
Can recognise phrases and content words related to basic personal and family information.
Can extract key factual information such as prices, times and dates from short clear, simple announcements.
Can recognise phrases and content words related to familiar topics (e.g. shopping, local geography).
Can understand simple, everyday conversations if conducted slowly and clearly.
Can follow short, simple social exchanges.
Can understand who a phone call is intended for.
Can extract key factual information such as prices, times and dates from a recorded phone message.
Can recognise when speakers agree or disagree in a conversation conducted slowly and clearly.
Can understand enough to respond to direct requests expressed slowly and clearly.
Can follow the main points in a simple audio recording, if provided with written supporting material.
Can generally identify the topic of discussion around them when conducted slowly and clearly.
Can understand enough to manage simple routine exchanges without undue effort.
Can derive the probable meaning of simple, unknown words from short, familiar contexts.
Can understand basic medical advice.
Can listen to a short narrative and predict what will happen next.
Can understand instructions delivered at normal speed and accompanied by visual support.
Can follow the main points in a simple audio recording aimed at a general audience.
Can understand the main points of narratives and conversations about familiar topics (e.g. work, leisure) delivered in clear standard speech.
Can identify specific information and a speaker’s point of view in a simple presentation or lecture aimed at a general audience.
Can understand simple technical instructions for everyday equipment.
Can identify the main point of TV news items reporting events, accidents, etc. where the visual supports the commentary.
Can generally follow changes of topic in discussions related to their field if conducted slowly and clearly.
Can follow most of an everyday conversation if speakers avoid very idiomatic usage.
Can infer opinions in a simple presentation or lecture, if guided by questions.
Can follow the main points in TV programmes on familiar topics if delivered in clear standard speech.
Can follow recorded instructions and information given on a phone-delivered service.
Can follow many films in which visuals and action carry much of the storyline.
Can recognise that a joke has been made, even if the meaning is not fully understood.
Can follow detailed directions.
Can take effective notes while listening to a simple, straightforward presentation or lecture on a familiar topic.
Can infer opinions in a simple presentation or lecture.
Can recognise that a speaker has summarised ideas in a simple presentation or lecture.
Can understand advice and instructions for resolving a problem with a product or piece of equipment.
Can recognise the use of language that expresses doubt in a simple presentation or lecture.
Can distinguish facts from opinions in a simple, straightforward presentation or lecture.
Can predict the content of a simple presentation or lecture by listening to the introductory statement.
Can extract the meaning of unknown words from context if the topic discussed is familiar.
Can generally follow rapid or extended speech, but may require repetition or clarification.
Can follow the main points in a panel discussion aimed at a general audience.
Can recognise the use of persuasive language in a simple presentation or lecture.
Can understand a large part of many TV programmes on familiar topics.
Can understand problem and solution relationships in informal conversation.
Can identify the main reasons for and against an argument or idea in a discussion delivered in clear standard speech.
Can recognise inferred meaning in a simple presentation or lecture.
Can recognise that a speaker has paraphrased ideas in a simple presentation or lecture.
Can understand most of a radio programme about a familiar topic.
Can follow changes of topic in factual TV news items and form an idea of the main content.
Can understand scripted speech delivered quickly, if the accent is familiar.
Can follow a natural group discussion, but may find it difficult to participate effectively.
Can understand detailed instructions well enough to be able to follow them without making mistakes.
Can understand TV documentaries, interviews, plays and most films in standard speech.
Can extract the main points from news items, etc. with opinions, arguments and discussion.
Can understand cause and effect relationships in informal conversation at natural speed.
Can follow chronological sequences in extended informal speech at natural speed.
Can understand the main ideas of complex technical discussions in their field.
Can distinguish between fact and opinion in informal discussion at natural speed.
Can follow a discussion in which speakers use some idiomatic language.
Can extract specific details from poor quality public announcements, e.g., in a station, sports stadium, etc.
Can recognise paraphrasing and repetition in a linguistically complex presentation or lecture.
Can follow a wide range of factual and creative texts and summarise themes and opinions.
Can differentiate between rhetorical and genuine questions in informal discussion.
Can infer attitude and mood in discussions by using contextual, grammatical and lexical cues.
Can understand when something is being said ironically in a casual conversation.
Can distinguish between fact and opinion and recognise doubt in a linguistically complex presentation or lecture.
Can understand the main points of complex academic/professional presentations.
Can understand most TV news and current affairs programmes.
Can understand detailed medical advice.
Can follow extended speech expressing unstructured ideas and thoughts.
Can identify a speaker’s bias in a presentation or discussion.
Can follow an animated conversation between two fluent speakers.
Can follow extended speech on abstract and complex topics outside their field, if able to ask for confirmation of details.
Can evaluate the strength of a speaker’s argument in a linguistically complex presentation or discussion.
Can follow a fast-paced conversation between fluent speakers well enough to be able to contribute.
Can identify logical flaws in a presentation or lecture.
Can identify a speaker’s point of view in a linguistically complex presentation or lecture in their field of specialisation.
Can follow a group discussion on complex, unfamiliar topics.
Can recognise coherence devices and follow complex arguments on unfamiliar topics.
Can understand the intended double meaning of a word used in a joke.
Can follow presentations on abstract and complex topics outside their field of interest.
Can understand implied meaning in a linguistically complex presentation or lecture.
Can follow films employing a considerable degree of slang and idiomatic usage.
Can recognise a wide range of idiomatic expressions and colloquialisms, appreciating register shifts.
Can understand in detail discussions on abstract and complex topics among speakers with a variety of accents and dialects.
Can follow a linguistically complex lecture or discussion which contains a large amount of specialised terminology or idiomatic language.
GSE 10–21/Below A1:
Can say the letters of the alphabet.
Can greet people using a few basic fixed expressions.
Can name a few very common everyday objects.
Can recognise and say the name of their own country, nationality and language.
Can ask someone what their nationality is.
Can read out phone numbers.
Can spell out their own name and address.
Can say other people’s nationalities.
Can ask and answer basic requests for information with What’s this/that?
Can tell the time of day in full hours.
Can name a few common jobs, and ask someone what their job is.
Can use some very basic words to ask for food and drink.
Can name very common forms of transport.
Can ask for and give the day and date.
Can say what they do (e.g. name of their job, student).
Can ask about the price of something.
Can establish basic social contacts with simple, polite greetings and farewells.
Can ask for and give a date of birth.
Can ask and answer simple questions about things they have in a limited way.
Can ask very simply for repetition when they don’t understand.
Can ask and answer basic questions about family and friends in a limited way.
Can tell the time of day to within five minutes.
Can greet people, ask how they are and react to news.
Can ask for a drink or food in a limited way.
Can ask and answer simple questions in areas of immediate need or on very familiar topics.
Can ask for and give very basic information about the home.
Can indicate time by such phrases as next week, last Friday, in November, three o’clock.
Can accurately repeat clearly spoken words, phrases, and short sentences.
Can check into a hotel using a few basic fixed expressions.
Can express ability or lack of ability with regard to basic activities using can or can’t.
Can ask people for things and give people things.
Can express how they are feeling using very basic fixed expressions.
Can exchange personal details (e.g. where they live, things they have).
Can express preferences about food and drink using basic fixed expressions.
Can use basic words to describe common weather conditions.
Can describe a person’s likes and dislikes using simple language.
Can use brief, everyday expressions to describe wants and needs, and request information.
Can express basic intentions with simple time markers (e.g. tomorrow).
Can talk about hotel accommodation using simple language.
Can give a short description of their home, family and job, given some help with vocabulary.
Can describe a person’s hobbies and activities using simple language.
Can use simple phrases to order a meal.
Can make simple purchases by stating what is wanted and asking for the price.
Can describe what someone is wearing using a limited range of expressions.
Can talk about furniture and rooms using simple language.
Can ask for simple directions from X to Y on foot or by public transport.
Can handle common everyday transactions (e.g. buying a ticket).
Can make simple transactions in shops, post offices and banks.
Can describe their family, living conditions, education and present or most recent job.
Can introduce themselves on the phone and close a simple call.
Can describe basic activities or events that are happening at the time of speaking.
Can make simple references to the past using was/were.
Can use simple language to describe people’s appearance.
Can give simple directions from X to Y on foot or by public transport.
Can ask for basic advice using simple language.
Can describe people’s everyday lives using a short series of simple phrases and sentences.
Can answer simple questions on the phone using fixed expressions.
Can ask for and provide everyday goods and services.
Can ask and answer questions about what they do at work and in their free time.
Can describe a travel experience with a few very basic stock phrases.
Can use a limited range of fixed expressions to describe objects, possessions, or products.
Can discuss what to do and where to go, and make arrangements to meet.
Can use simple, everyday polite forms of greeting and address.
Can ask and talk about very basic symptoms and ailments (e.g. cold, flu).
Can leave simple phone messages using fixed expressions.
Can answer simple questions and respond to simple statements in an interview.
Can make simple, direct comparisons between two people or things using common adjectives.
Can describe what something is used for, using basic fixed expressions.
Can give an extended description of everyday topics (e.g. people, places, experiences).
Can deal with practical everyday demands, exchanging straightforward factual information.
Can express how they feel in simple terms.
Can ask and answer questions about basic plans and intentions.
Can describe very basic events in the past using simple linking words (e.g. then, next).
Can take simple phone messages using fixed expressions.
Can make hotel, restaurant, or transport reservations on the phone.
Can get information from a tourist office of a straightforward, non-specialised nature.
Can describe plans and arrangements.
Can give basic advice using simple language.
Can ask for and give or refuse permission.
Can ask and answer questions about past times and past activities.
Can express enthusiasm and excitement in a limited way.
Can give a simple description of how to carry out an everyday process (e.g. a recipe).
Can tell a story or describe something in a simple list of points.
Can talk about personal possessions, including household pets.
Can participate in short conversations in routine contexts on topics of interest.
Can cancel hotel, restaurant, or transport reservations on the phone.
Can make an appointment on the phone.
Can ask for, follow and give detailed directions.
Can summarise short written passages using the original wording and ordering.
Can convey simple information of immediate relevance and emphasise the main point.
Can deal with less routine situations on public transport (e.g. asking where to get off ).
Can carry out a prepared structured interview with some spontaneous follow-up questions.
Can deal with common situations when making travel arrangements or travelling.
Can express belief, opinion, agreement and disagreement politely.
Can narrate a story.
Can express opinions using simple language.
Can explain the rules of a familiar game or sport using simple language.
Can return a phone call, explaining who is calling and the reason for the call.
Can initiate, maintain and close simple, face-to-face conversations on familiar topics.
Can give or seek personal views and opinions in discussing topics of interest.
Can express preferences about food and drink in detail.
Can enter unprepared into conversation on familiar topics (e.g. family, hobbies, work).
Can describe events, real or imagined.
Can express attitudes using simple language.
Can ask basic questions in a simple academic discussion.
Can describe dreams, hopes and ambitions.
Can introduce a conversation topic with the present perfect and provide details in the past.
Can give detailed accounts of experiences, describing feelings and reactions.
Can contribute to a group discussion if the discussion is conducted slowly and clearly.
Can take some initiative in an interview, but is generally very dependent on interviewer.
Can give simple reasons to justify a viewpoint on a familiar topic.
Can discuss films, books or plays in simple terms, using fixed expressions.
Can give detailed directions to a driver.
Can express opinions as regards possible solutions, giving brief reasons and explanations.
Can express opinions and react to practical suggestions of where to go, what to do, etc.
Can make a complaint.
Can briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions, plans and actions.
Can speak in general terms about environmental problems.
Can suggest pros and cons when discussing a topic, using simple language.
Can give an effective presentation about a familiar topic.
Can define the features of something concrete for which they can’t remember the word.
Can summarise information from a simple academic text.
Can describe basic symptoms to a doctor, but with limited precision.
Can relate the basic details of unpredictable occurrences (e.g. an accident).
Can leave phone messages containing detailed information.
Can use synonyms to describe or gloss an unknown word.
Can explain the main points in an idea or problem with reasonable precision.
Can express their thoughts in some detail on cultural topics (e.g. music, films).
Can explain why something is a problem.
Can respond to ideas and suggestions in informal discussions.
Can contribute ideas in a panel discussion, using simple language.
Can summarise and comment on short stories, issues, topics or articles and answer questions in detail.
Can carry out a prepared interview, checking and confirming information as necessary.
Can ask for advice on a wide range of subjects.
Can ask a question in a different way if misunderstood.
Can express disagreement or support in a manner that shows they were actively listening to the other person.
Can deal with less common situations in a shop, post office (e.g. returning an unsatisfactory purchase).
Can exchange information on a wide range of topics within their field with some confidence.
Can describe objects, possessions and products in detail, including their characteristics and special features.
Can give basic technical instructions in their field of specialisation.
Can justify a viewpoint on a topical issue by discussing pros and cons of various options.
Can correct mistakes if they have led to misunderstandings.
Can justify and sustain views clearly by providing relevant explanations and arguments.
Can give the advantages and disadvantages of various options on a topical issue.
Can pass on a detailed piece of information reliably.
Can express feelings (e.g. sympathy, surprise, interest) with confidence, using a range of expressions.
Can construct a chain of reasoned argument in support of or against a particular point of view.
Can give a clear, detailed spoken description of how to carry out a procedure.
Can accurately describe a problem with a product or piece of equipment.
Can speculate about causes, consequences, hypothetical situations.
Can contribute to a conversation fluently and naturally, provided the topic is not too abstract or complex.
Can give advice on a wide range of subjects.
Can politely avoid answering a question without making it obvious to the listener.
Can lead a discussion in an interview, expanding and developing ideas with little help from the interviewer.
Can ask questions about abstract or complex topics outside their field of specialisation.
Can carry out an effective, fluent interview, spontaneously following up on interesting replies.
Can negotiate a solution to a dispute (e.g. an undeserved traffic ticket, blame for an accident).
Can respond appropriately to complex and controversial questions.
Can give a detailed response to a counter-argument presented by someone else during a discussion.
Can express attitudes using linguistically complex language.
Can depart from and return fluently to a prepared speech in order to answer audience questions.
Can substitute an equivalent term for a word they can’t recall so smoothly that it isn’t noticeable.
Can contribute to group discussions even when speech is fast and colloquial.
Can answer questions about abstract topics clearly and in detail.
Can rephrase controversial statements into more neutral language.
Can contribute ideas in a panel discussion using linguistically complex language.
Can participate in a fast-paced conversation with fluent speakers.
Can convey finer shades of meaning precisely by accurately using a wide range of modification devices.
Can give an extended academic lecture.
Can complete simple forms with basic personal details.
Can write simple sentences about things that they and other people have.
Can write simple sentences about their family and where they live.
Can write simple sentences about personal interests.
Can write short, simple notes, emails and postings to friends.
Can write simple sentences about someone’s life and routines.
Can write simple sentences about what they and other people do.
Can use very basic connectors like and, but, so and then.
Can write a simple description of a room, house or apartment.
Can write very short, basic directions.
Can write simple sentences about personal skills.
Can make simple comparisons between people, places or things.
Can ask for personal details in written form in a limited way.
Can write short, basic descriptions of places, people or things.
Can write a description of a simple everyday process (e.g. a recipe).
Can write very simple personal emails/letters expressing thanks and apology.
Can write short basic descriptions of past events and activities.
Can write a basic informal email/letter of invitation with simple, key details, or accept/decline an invitation.
Can write simple sentences about their educational background and present or past job.
Can write a short, simple description of a familiar device or product.
Can write an email/letter congratulating someone on something.
Can show a basic direct relationship between a simple problem and a solution.
Can write a basic formal email/letter requesting information.
Can write a description of a future event or activity.
Can write simple informal emails/letters and online postings giving news or opinions.
Can write about personal interests in some detail.
Can write descriptions of past events, activities, or personal experiences.
Can write an everyday connected text using a set of short elements or facts and building them into a sequence.
Can write a basic letter of application with limited supporting details.
Can complete a detailed form requiring travel information (e.g. visa application).
Can write a basic summary of a simple text using the original wording and paragraph order.
Can write personal emails/letters giving advice.
Can take notes on a simple presentation or lecture aimed at a general audience.
Can paraphrase information from a simple text, if guided by questions.
GSE 51–58/B1(+): .
Can write a basic email/letter of complaint requesting action.
Can write short, simple biographies about real or imaginary people.
Can write an email/letter sending a message of sympathy.
Can write a simple review of a film, book or TV programme using a limited range of language.
Can give someone clear, detailed directions on how to get somewhere in a letter, email, or online posting.
Can write a description of a real or imagined event (e.g. a recent trip).
Can write a simple descriptive essay, if provided with a model.
Can respond to and comment on other people’s personal updates on a social media website.
Can write a simple essay in response to a specific question.
Can write personal updates on a social media website using an appropriate style.
Can write instructions on how to use a device or product.
Can write a description of a problem with a product or piece of equipment.
Can write a detailed description of a simple process.
- Can write a formal email/letter of thanks or apology with appropriate conventions.
Can reformulate an idea in different words to emphasise or explain a point.
Can write a discursive (argumentative) essay stating a clear opinion.
Can write instructions on how to repair an object, device or product.
Can clearly signal the difference between fact and opinion in structured text.
Can write detailed descriptions of real or imaginary places.
Can write a concise summary of the main ideas of a longer structured text.
Can write personal emails/letters about abstract or cultural topics (e.g. music, films).
Can write a letter of complaint with appropriate register, structure and conventions.
Can write a letter of application with appropriate register, conventions and supporting detail.
Can express news and views effectively in writing and relate to those of others.
Can adopt a level of formality appropriate to the circumstances.
Can systematically develop an argument giving the reasons for or against a point of view.
Can write about feelings and the personal significance of experiences in detail.
Can write effective and appropriate paragraphs in a range of genres.
Can write a structured review of a film, book or play with some references and examples.
Can check and correct spelling, punctuation and grammar mistakes in long written texts.
Can identify and correct errors in a piece of academic writing.
Can synthesise information from two or more academic texts.
Can refute a counterargument in written work.
Can use appropriate tone and register when writing academic texts.
Can use a range of idiomatic phrases as part of a structured text.
Can proofread their own academic work and make corrections.
Can write an accurate summary of a complex, discursive text.
Can write a detailed critical review of cultural events (e.g. plays, films, concerts) or literary works.
Can express themselves fluently in writing, adapting the level of formality to the context.
Can confidently argue a case in writing, specifying needs and objectives precisely and justifying them as necessary.
Can write a linguistically complex discursive essay.
Can smoothly switch between a range of writing styles to address specific audiences and topics in a personal way.
Can write a detailed account of an experiment, including theoretical background, findings, and conclusions.
Can make jokes in writing using words with similar spelling but different meanings.
Can create well-structured complex texts with underlying inferred meaning.
Can edit and improve a linguistically complex text.
Can write an effective and correctly formatted research paper.
Can enhance a text using figurative language such as onomatopoeia, alliteration or hyperbole.
Can write an academic article for publication in their field.